“driven from their homes by the disloyal Indians . . .”


Native Americans were caught between the Union and the Confederacy, and the loyalties of several tribes were split. In this letter, U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs, William P. Dole described the plight of a group of Creek Indians. Loyal to the Union, they were driven from their lands by Confederate forces and other Creeks sympathetic to the Confederacy. The refugees eventually fought their way to Kansas, where they faced starvation and harsh winter conditions.

National Archives, Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Interior