Promotion denied, again


In this letter, dated November 18, 1864, Major General J.G. Foster responds to a request made by Massachusetts Governor John Andrew. Andrew had repeated a request that Sergeant Stephen A. Swails, of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteers be allowed to muster in as a 2nd Lieutenant. In this letter, Foster once again refuses his promotion because Swails “is of African descent.”

National Archives, Records of the Adjutant General's Office


Educational Resources

Additional Resources